Pain science is the study of the nature of pain, its treatment, and related pain-management practices. In recent years, our understanding of how pain works has grown and changed due to ongoing research, revealing a better understanding of the pain experience and its management. Now the understanding is that pain is not simply the consequence of biomechanical tissue damage. As revealed by neuroscience research in recent decades, pain is a protective response our brains produce, which is influenced by many BioPsychoSocial factors, particularly the individual’s pain beliefs. Therefore tissue damage may be a factor, but is not always present when pain is experienced.